Tipultech logo

Stubs about constructs

Author: Dr Simon Moss

This page presents stubs--that is, preliminary extracts--about various constructs.



Ability tests with objective criteria


Abraham, R. (2000). The role of job control as a moderator of emotional dissonance and emotional intelligence-outcome relationships. The Journal of Psychology, 134, 169-184.

Bagby, R. M., Parker, J. D. A., & Taylor, G. J. (1994). The twenty-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale: I. Item selection and cross-validation of the factor structure. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 38, 23-32.

Bar-On, R. (1997). BarOn emotional quotient inventory (EQ-i): Technical manual. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.

Barchard, K. A. (2003). Does emotional intelligence assist in the prediction of academic success? Educational and Psychological Measurement, 63, 840-858.

Barchard, K. A., & Hakstian, R. A. (2004). The nature and measurement of emotional intelligence abilities: Basic dimensions and their relationships with other cognitive ability and personality variables. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 64, 437-462.

Bastian, V. A., Burns, N. R., & Nettelbeck, T. (2005). Emotional intelligence predicts life skills, but not as well as personality and cognitive abilities. Personality and Individual Differences, 39, 1135-1145.

Brackett, M. A., & Salovey, P. (2006). Measuring emotional intelligence with the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Psicothema, 18(suppl.), 34-41.

Cherniss, C. (2000). Social and Emotional Competence in the Workplace. In, R. Bar-On & Parker, J.D (Ed.), The Handbook of Emotional Intelligence: Theory, Development, Assessment and Application at Home, School, and in the Workplace, (pp. 433-489). California: Jossey-Bass.

Ciarrochi, J. V., Chan, A. Y. C., & Caputi, P. (2000). A critical evaluation of the emotional intelligence construct. Personality and Individual Differences, 28, 539-561.

Cooper, R. K., & Sawaf, A. (1997). Executive EQ: Emotional intelligence in business. London: Orion Business.

Freudenthaler, H. H., & Neubauer, A. C. (2005). Emotional intelligence: The convergent and discriminant validities of intra and interpersonal emotional abilities. Personality and Individual Differences, 39, 569-579.

Gardner, L., & Stough, C. (2002). Examining the relationship between leadership and emotional intelligence in senior level managers. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 23(2), 68-78.

George, J. M. (2000). Emotions and leadership: The role of emotional intelligence. Human Relations, 53, 1027-1055.

Gohm, C. L., Corser, G. C., & Dalsky, D. J. (2005). Emotional intelligence under stress: Useful, unnecessary, or irrelevant? Personality and Individual Differences, 39, 1017-1028.

Goldenberg, I., Matheson, K., & Mantler, J. (2006). The assessment of emotional intelligence: A comparison of performance-based and selfreport methodologies. Journal of Personality Assessment, 86, 33-45.

Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional Intelligence. New York: Bantam.

Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence. London: Bloomsbury.

Goleman, D. (2002). Primal Leadership: Realizing the power of emotional intelligence. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

MacCann, C., Roberts, R. D., Matthews, G., & Zeidner, M. (2004). Consensus scoring and empirical option weighting of performance-based emotional intelligence (EI) tests. Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 645-662.

Matthews, G., Emo, A. K., Funke, G., Zeidner, M., Roberts, R. D., Costa, P. T., Jr., et al. (2006). Emotional intelligence, personality, and task-induced stress. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 12, 69-107.

Matthews, G., Zeidner, M., & Roberts, R. D. (2002). Emotional intelligence: Science and myth. Boston: MIT Press.

Mayer, J. D., Caruso, D. R., & Salovey, P. (2000). Emotional intelligence meets traditional standards for an intelligence. Intelligence, 27, 267-298.

Mayer, J. D. & Salovey, P. (1997). What is Emotional Intelligence. In P. Salovey and D. Slayter. Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Eductational implications (pp.3-34). New York: Basiebooks.

Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (1999). Instruction Manual for the MSCEIT: Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.

Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2000). Emotional intelligence as zeitgest, as personality, and as a mental ability. In R. Bar-On & J. D. A. Parker (Eds.), The handbook of emotional intelligence (pp. 92-117). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., Caruso, D. R., & Sitarenios, G. (2001). Emotional intelligence as a standard intelligence. Emotion, 1, 232-242.

Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., Caruso, D. R., & Sitarenios, G. (2003). Measuring emotional intelligence with the MSCEIT V2.0. Emotion, 3, 97-105.

Mayer, J., Roberts, R. D., & Barsade, S. G. (2008). Human abilities: Emotional intelligence. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 507-536.

Palmer, B., & Stough, C. (2002). Workplace SUEIT: Swinburne University Emotional Intelligence Test - Interim technical manual version 2. Melbourne: Organisational Psychology Research Unit, Swinburne University.

Palmer, B., Walls, M., Burgess, Z., & Stough, C. (2001). Emotional intelligence and effective leadership. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 22, 5-10.

Parker, J. D. A., Summerfeldt, L. J., Hogan, M. J., & Majeski, S. A. (2004). Emotional intelligence and academic success: Examining the transition from high school to university. Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 163-172.

Roberts, R. D., Schulze, R., & MacCann, C. (2008). The measurement of emotional intelligence: A decade of progress? In G. J. Boyle (Ed.), Handbook of personality. New York: Sage.

Roberts, R. D., Zeidner, M., & Matthews, G. (2001). Does emotional intelligence meet traditional standards for an intelligence? Some new data and conclusions. Emotion, 1, 196-231.

Salovey, P., Bendell, B.T., Detweiler, J.B. and Mayer, J.D. (1999). Current directions in emotional intelligence research. In M. Lewis & J.M. Haviland-Jones (Eds), Handbook of Emotions (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional Intelligence. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 9, 185-211.

Salovey, P. and Mayer, J.D. (1993). The intelligence of emotional intelligence. Intelligence, 17, 433-442.

Warwick, J., & Nettelbeck, T. (2004). Emotional intelligence is? Personality and Individual Differences, 37, 1091-1100.

Woitaszewski, S. A., & Aalsma, M. C. (2004). The contribution of emotional intelligence to the social and academic success of gifted adolescents as measured by the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale: Adolescent Version. Roeper Review, 27, 25-30.

Wong, C., & Law, K. S. (2002). The effects of leader and follower emotional intelligence on performance and attitude: An exploratory study. Leadership Quarterly, 13, 243-274.

Ego development

Loevinger (1976) characterized several stages of ego development. At immature stages, individuals tend to interpret their personal experiences egocentrically and simplistically.

Hy, L. X., & Loevinger, J. (1996). Measuring ego development (2nd ed.). Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

King, L. A., & Raspin, C. (2004). Lost and found possible selves, subjective well-being, and ego development in divorced women. Journal of Personality, 72, 603-632.

Loevinger, J. (1976). Ego development. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Loevinger, J., & Wessler, R. (1970). Measuring ego development. Construction and use of a sentence completion test (Vol. 1). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

McAdams, D. P., Ruetzel, K., & Foley, J. M. (1986). Complexity and generativity at midlife: Relations among social motives, ego development, and adults plans for the future. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 800-807.

Pals, J. L. (2006). Authoring a second chance in life: Emotion and transformational processing in narrative identity. Research in Human Development, 3, 101-120.

Pasupathi, M. (2001). The social construction of the personal past and its implications for adult development. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 651-672

Thorne, A. (2000). Personal memory telling and personality development. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 4, 45-56.

Westenberg, M., Blasi, A., & Cohn, L. D. (Eds.). (1998). Personality development: Theoretical, empirical, and clinical investigations of Loevinger's conception of ego development. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex

Regulation of emotions

The ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, especially in the right hemisphere, might be pertinent to the regulation of negative emotions. In particular, activation of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex seems to reduce the activation of regions that are associated with affective experiences, such as the amygdala (e.g., Hariri, Bookheimer, & Mazziotta, 2000;& Hariri, Mattay, Tessitore, Fera, & Weinberger, 2003;& Lieberman, Hariri, Jarcho, Eisenberger, & Bookheimer, 2005).

In a typical study, conducted by Lieberman, Eisenberger, Crockett, Tom, Pfeifer, and Way (2007), for example, a series of emotional pictures were presented. In one condition, emotional words, such as "pain", coincided with the presentation of these pictures. In another condition, unemotional words coincided with these pictures. In the final condition, no words coincided with these pictures.

When emotional words coincided with these pictures, right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, but not the amygdala, showed elevated levels of activation, as manifested by fMRI. In contrast, when unemotional words or no words coincided with these pictures, the amygdala showed elevated levels of activation.

Tabibnia, Lieberman, and Craske (2008) showed that conditions that activate the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex--that is, the exposure of distressing pictures coupled with emotional words--reduced autonomic reactivity. For example, when the same distressing pictures were presented on 10 or so occasions, the skin conductance of participants diminished over time, especially when coupled with an emotional word.

Accordingly, conditions that activate the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex also reduce the emotional intensity of events. Indeed, this region might have evolved to enable individuals to reflect upon emotional issues objectively and systematically, without the distractions of intense feelings (Tabibnia, Lieberman, & Craske, 2008).


Hariri, A. R., Bookheimer, S. Y., & Mazziotta, J. (2000). Modulating emotional responses: Effects of a neocortical network on the limbic system. Neuroreport, 17, 43-48.

Hariri, A. R., Mattay, V. S., Tessitore, A., Fera, F., & Weinberger, D. R. (2003). Neocortical modulation of the amygdala response to fearful stimuli. Biological Psychiatry, 53, 494-501

Lieberman, M. D., Eisenberger, N. I., Crockett, M. J., Tom, S. M., Pfeifer, J. H., & Way, B. M. (2007). Putting feelings into words: Affect labeling disrupts amygdala activity to affective stimuli. Psychological Science, 18, 421-428.

Lieberman, M. D., Hariri, A., Jarcho, J. M., Eisenberger, N. I., & Bookheimer, S. Y. (2005). An fMRI investigation of race-related amygdala activity in African-American and Caucasian-American individuals. Nature Neuroscience, 8, 720-722.

Ochsner, K. N., Bunge, S. A., Gross, J. J., & Gabrieli, J. D. E. (2002). Rethinking feelings: An fMRI study of the cognitive regulation of emotion. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14, 1215-1229.

Tabibnia, G., & Lieberman, M. D., & Craske, M. G. (2008). The lasting effects of words on feelings: Words may facilitate exposure effects to threatening images. Emotion, 8, 307-317.



Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudiamonic well being. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 141-166.

Ryff, C. D., & Keyes, C. L. M. (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 719-727.

Academic Scholar?
Join our team of writers.
Write a new opinion article,
a new Psyhclopedia article review
or update a current article.
Get recognition for it.

Last Update: 5/31/2016