Repeated-measures design. Participants in the experimental group were tested twice: immediately prior to commencement of the 10-day course (Time 1 (T1); M = 1.58 days prior, SD = 1.16) and then again 7-10 days after its conclusion (Time 2 (T2); M = 9.25 days after, SD = 1.82). It was decided to wait 7-10 days between the end of the course and post-testing in order to allow the participants to readjust to their daily routines and for pure state effects of the course on affect, metacognitive processing and executive function to be naturally attenuated . This is proposed to provide a better measure of enduring trait changes resulting from the meditation course. Participants in the control group were likewise tested 21 days apart, despite not attending a meditation course in the interim.
The experimental paradigm in a mixed within-between subjects design with time (T1 and T2) as a within-subjects factor and Group (Meditators vs. Nonmeditators) as a between-subjects factor. There were seven dependent variables: mean scores on self-report ratings (BDI, BAI, PANAS, RRS, MAAS) and the DSB, and reaction times (RTs) on the Internal Switching task (IST)
While it has traditionally been assumed that conducting multiple univariate analyses, such as multiple analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedures, leads to an inflated Type I error rate, it has been suggested that such analyses are appropriate "when the research being conducted is exploratory in nature" (Huberty & Morris, 1989, p.303). They suggest that "conducting a MANOVA as a preliminary step to multiple ANOVAs is not only unnecessary but irrelevant" (p.307). The present study investigated a new treatment and some unique outcome variables, with a view to suggesting preliminary conclusions regarding which may inform future research directions. As such, multiple ANOVAs were used for the analyses.