This section describes specific predictions that were proposed about the types of frames likely to be used by differently motivated negotiators.
The relationship between cooperatively motivated negotiators is typically characterised by
an emphasis on equality and mutual trust (Carnevale & Pruitt, 1992). In contrast to
competitively motivated negotiators, cooperatively motivated negotiators have been found
to disclose more information, acknowledge the legitimacy of the other party's interests,
adopt more supportive and relationship-oriented behaviours, engage in greater levels of
problem-solving, enhance the other party's power, engage in greater process management,
and underscore the commonalities between themselves and their negotiation partner
(Carnevale & Pruitt, 1992; Carroll & Payne, 1991; Deutsch, 2000; Putnam, 1990).
Such behaviour is likely to occur when negotiators are framing information in a more
cooperative manner. Under these conditions, cooperatively-oriented frames will be more
likely to be expressed. Thus, it is predicted that:
H1: Negotiators in the cooperative motivation condition are more likely to express cooperatively-oriented frames -- cooperative aspiration, cooperative outcome and inclusive process frames -- than negotiators in the competitive motivation condition.
In contrast to negotiators seeking to maximise joint gain, negotiators seeking to maximise
individual gain typically display more competitive behaviours. In this type of relationship,
parties tend to express threats and demands, conceal information, demonstrate lower
levels of relationship orientation, highlight differences and seek to enhance their
power and control (Deutsch, 1973; 2000; Carnevale & Pruitt, 1992; Olekalns, 1994;
Olekalns & Smith, 1998; Olekalns & Smith, 1999). To evoke such behaviours,
the types of conflict frames that competitively motivated negotiators are likely
to use are those that are less considerate of the needs and concerns of the other.
It is therefore predicted that:
H2: When compared to negotiators in the cooperative motivation condition, negotiators in the competitive motivation condition are more likely to express competitively-oriented frames -- including competitive aspiration, competitive outcome and non-inclusive process frames.
Because negotiators motivated in a competitive way have been found to act to increase
their power and control over the negotiation, it is also predicted that:
H3: When compared to negotiators in the cooperative motivation condition, negotiators in the competitive motivation condition are more likely to express power/rights-based justification frames.
In the mixed motivation condition, one party was encouraged to adopt a
competitive motivational orientation and the other party was encouraged
to adopt a cooperative motivational orientation. In explaining the way in which
frames are likely to be used in this setting, one group of findings suggests that
the competitively motivated individual in the dyad is likely to remain relatively
unaffected by the behaviour employed by their partner. In contrast, the cooperatively
motivated partner has been found to adopt the more competitive behaviours as
displayed by their negotiation partner (Kelley & Stahelski, 1970; Olekalns et al., 1996).
Accordingly, in the mixed motivation condition, the frames used by the cooperator
will become more competitively-oriented during the course of the negotiation.
Because both negotiators will ultimately be using more competitively-oriented frames:
H4: Within the mixed motivation condition, competitively-oriented frames -- competitive aspiration, competitive outcome and non-inclusive process frames -- will be more frequently used than cooperatively-oriented frames -- cooperative aspiration, cooperative outcome and inclusive process frames.