There were 41 male participants in this study. Their ages ranged from 18 to 27 years, with a mean age of 20 years. Participants were recruited through La Trobe University's paid student participant pool. Each participant was paid five dollars for taking part in the study. Students of psychology were excluded from the study owing to the familiarity they may have had with the deception experiments. The participants were enrolled in courses ranging from computer science and physiotherapy through to media and commerce.